Literal Reification pattern

IRI:
http://purl.org/spar/literal
Date:
23/03/2011
Authors:
Aldo Gangemi
Fabio Vitali
Silvio Peroni
Imported Ontologies:
http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/region.owl (visualise it with LODE)
http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/schemas/cpannotationschema.owl (visualise it with LODE)
Other visualisation:
Ontology source

Abstract

The pattern literal reification is a modelling technique to address scenarios in which we need to bless particular literals, usually when applying data properties, in order to use them as subjects and/or full-fledged objects of semantic assertions.

Table of Content

  1. Introduction
  2. Classes
  3. Object Properties
  4. Data Properties
  5. Annotation Properties
  6. SWRL Rules
  7. Namespace Declarations

Introduction

Recently within the Semantic Web community a new topic has been actively discussed: whether and how to allow literals to be subjects of RDF statements (http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/wiki/Literals as Subjects). This discussions failed to provide a unique and clear indication of how to proceed in that regard. Although one of the suggestions coming out of the discussion was to explicitly include the proposal in a (future) specification of RDF, this topic is not actually new, particularly in ontology modelling. The needs to describe “typical” literals (specially strings) as individuals of a particular class has been addressed by a lot of models in past, such as Common Tag (through the class Tag), SIOC (through the classes Category and Tag), SKOS-XL (through the class Label), and LMM (through the class Expression). After considering the above-mentioned models and other related and inspiring ones, we have developed a pattern called literal reification to address this issue. It allows to express literal values as proper ontological individuals so as to use them as subject/object of any assertion within OWL models.

Classes

literalc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.essepuntato.it/2010/06/literalreification/Literal

It describes reified literals, where the literal value they represent is speficied through the property litre:hasLiteralValue. Each individual of this class must always have a specified value.
is equivalent to
has literal valuedp exactly 1
has super-classes
regionc
is in domain of
has literal valuedp, has same literal value asop, is literal ofop
is in range of
has literalop, has same literal value asop

Object Properties

has literalop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.essepuntato.it/2010/06/literalreification/hasLiteral

It connects individuals of any class to a reified literal.
has super-properties
has regionop
has range
literalc
is inverse of
is literal ofop

has same literal value asop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.essepuntato.it/2010/06/literalreification/hasSameLiteralValueAs

It relates the reified literal to another one that has the same literal value.

has characteristics: symmetric, transitive

has super-properties
top object propertyop
has domain
literalc
has range
literalc

is literal ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.essepuntato.it/2010/06/literalreification/isLiteralOf

It connects the reified literal to the individuals that are using it.
has super-properties
is region forop
has domain
literalc
is inverse of
has literalop

Data Properties

has literal valuedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://www.essepuntato.it/2010/06/literalreification/hasLiteralValue

It is used to specify the literal value that an individual of litre:Literal represents.

has characteristics: functional

has super-properties
has region data valuedp
has domain
literalc
has range
literal

Annotation Properties

commentap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#comment

contributorap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/contributor

covers requirementsap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/schemas/cpannotationschema.owl#coversRequirements

creatorap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator

dateap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/date

descriptionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/description

has componentap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/schemas/cpannotationschema.owl#hasComponent

has intentap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/schemas/cpannotationschema.owl#hasIntent

has unit testap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/schemas/cpannotationschema.owl#hasUnitTest

is specialization ofap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/schemas/cpannotationschema.owl#isSpecializationOf

labelap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label

node i dap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.semanticweb.org/owlapi#nodeID

related c psap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/schemas/cpannotationschema.owl#relatedCPs

scenariosap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/schemas/cpannotationschema.owl#scenarios

titleap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title

SWRL rules

Rule #1back to ToC

has same literal value asop(?x,?y) , has literal valuedp(?y,?v) -> has literal valuedp(?x,?v)

Namespace Declarations back to ToC

default namespace
http://purl.org/spar/literal#
cpannotationschema
http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/schemas/cpannotationschema.owl#
dc
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
literalreification
http://dwellonit.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/dwellonit/LiteralReification/
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
owlapi
http://www.semanticweb.org/owlapi#
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
region-owl
http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/cp/owl/region.owl#
schemas
http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/schemas/
spar
http://purl.org/spar/
swrl
http://www.w3.org/2003/11/swrl#
swrlb
http://www.w3.org/2003/11/swrlb#
xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#

This HTML document was obtained by processing the OWL ontology source code through LODE, Live OWL Documentation Environment, developed by Silvio Peroni.