Affordance Ontology

IRI:
https://w3id.org/MON/affordance.owl
Imported Ontologies :
http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/ont/dul/DUL.owl (visualise it with LODE )
https://w3id.org/MON/action.owl (visualise it with LODE )
https://w3id.org/MON/generic.owl (visualise it with LODE )
https://w3id.org/MON/time.owl (visualise it with LODE )
Covers requirements :
- What are the tasks afforded in a certain situation?
- Which is the strength of an Affordance?
Has Intent :
- To represent the model for supporting the action selection mechanism.
Other visualisation :
Ontology source - WebVowl

Table of Content

  1. Introduction
  2. Classes
  3. Object Properties
  4. Data Properties
  5. Annotation Properties
  6. General Axioms
  7. Namespace Declarations

Introduction

The Affordance ontology is one of the modules of the MARIO Ontology Network (<a href="https://w3id.org/MON">MON</a>) which aims at extending the classical notion of affordance (Gibson 1977). This theory suggests that the physical objects (e.g., a door) offer the opportunity of performing an action (e.g., open). The Affordance ontology is designed by relying on the assumption that, not only physical objects, but also complex situations (e.g. the user want to listen to some music) afford actions (e.g. play music). A complex situation can be seen as the fulfilment at a certain time of certain conditions. These conditions may involve temporal aspects (e.g. lunchtime may afford the task remember the user to take the pills), the perception of certain physical objects, the receiving of a command (e.g. I want to listen to some music), or even the existence of certain state-of-affairs (e.g. the situation the user is sitting on a chair for a long while may afford the task entertain the user). The affordance is formalised as a weighted relation (i.e. a specialization of dul:Relation), which connects a stereotyped situation (i.e. a dul:Description) to the task to be performed in the situation (i.e. a dul:Task) or the goal that the agent has to achieve in a given situation (i.e. dul:Goal). This solution enables two (mutually exclusive) behavior arbitration strategies: - A <i>purely-reactive strategy</i> in which the task is directly activated at the occurrence of a certain situation. For example, if the battery is in critical level, then the robot has to charge it. - A <i>goal-oriented strategy</i> in which the occurrence of a certain stereotyped situation causes the robot to set a goal, and the choice of the actions to perform for achieving the goal are delegated to a planner. For example, the goal "entertaining the user" might require multiple actions (including approaching the user, and entertaining the user with different activities such as playing musing, showing videos etc.) scheduled according to a certain sequence. The affordanceStrength allows to define a prioritization among the affordance relations. For example, if the battery is in critical level, then the robot should not activate the goal ``entertaining the user''. This can be achieved by assigning to (battery in critical level, recharge) a strength higher than (user annoyed, entertain the user). <b>References</b> - L. Asprino, A. G. Nuzzolese, A. Russo, A. Gangemi, V. Presutti, S. Nolfi. "An ontology design pattern for supporting behaviour arbitration in cognitive agents" in: K. Hammar, P. Hitzler, A. Krisnadhi, A. Lawrynowicz, A. G. Nuzzolese, M. Solanki (Eds.), Advances in Ontology Design and Patterns, IOS Press, 2017, pp. 85–95 - Gibson, James J. "The concept of affordances" Perceiving, acting, and knowing (1977). - MARIO Ontology Network (MON) https://w3id.org/MON <b>Example of Usage</b> We provide an example of usage of the Affordance ontology for specifying the following scenario. X is a social robot able to entertain its user by playing music. X can play whatever musical genre the user likes and whenever the user wants to, unless its battery is in critical level. Therefore, if the the user wants to listen to some music and the battery is not in critical level, X accommodates the user's request. Otherwise, if the battery is in critical level, then X go recharging itself. <pre> @prefix aff: &#60;https://w3id.org/MON/affordance.owl#&#62; . @prefix action: &#60;https://w3id.org/MON/action.owl#&#62; . @prefix dul: &#60;http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/ont/dul/DUL.owl#&#62; . :UserWantsToListenToSomeMusic a dul:Description . :BatteryInCritalLevel a dul:Description . :PlayMusic a action:Task; aff:hasParameter :genre . :Recharge a aff:Task. :affordancePlayMusicBatteryCritical a aff:Affodance ; aff:affordanceStrength "-10"^^xsd:double ; aff:holds :BatteryInCritalLevel ; aff:hasTask :PlayMusic . :affordancePlayMusicUserWantsToListenToSomeMusic a aff:Affodance ; aff:affordanceStrength "10"^^xsd:double ; aff:holds :UserWantsToListenToSomeMusic ; aff:hasTask :PlayMusic . :affordanceRechargeBatteryCritical a aff:Affodance ; aff:affordanceStrength "1"^^xsd:double ; aff:holds :BatteryInCritalLevel ; aff:hasTask :Recharge . </pre>

Classes

Affordancec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/MON/affordance.owl#Affordance

An affordance is modelled in DnS fashion and is an n-ary that relates state of the world (i.e., stereotyped situations) to tasks according to specific weights or affordance strengths.
has super-classes
relation
(has goalop only goal) or (has taskop only task)
holdsop exactly 1 description
affordance strengthdp some double
is in domain of
affordance strengthdp, has goalop, has taskop, holdsop
is in range of
is held byop

Object Properties

has goalop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/MON/affordance.owl#hasGoal

It connects an Affordance with the Goal that will be activated.

has characteristics : functional

has super-properties
associated withop
has domain
Affordancec
has range
goal

has taskop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/MON/affordance.owl#hasTask

It associates an Affordance to the Task it refers to.

has characteristics : functional

has super-properties
associated withop
has domain
Affordancec
has range
task

holdsop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/MON/affordance.owl#holds

It associates an Affordance with the Description in which it holds.
has super-properties
associated withop
has domain
Affordancec
is inverse of
is held byop

is held byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/MON/affordance.owl#isHeldBy

It associates a Description with the Affordance it enables.
has super-properties
associated withop
has range
Affordancec
is inverse of
holdsop

Data Properties

affordance strengthdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/MON/affordance.owl#affordanceStrength

It encodes the strength of the Affordance.

has characteristics : functional

has super-properties
has data valuedp
has domain
Affordancec
has range
double

Annotation Properties

covers requirementsap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/schemas/cpannotationschema.owl#coversRequirements

descriptionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/description

has intentap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/schemas/cpannotationschema.owl#hasIntent

titleap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title

General Axioms

General Subclass Definition back to ToC

(has goalop some goal) and (has taskop some task) is subclass of

nothing

Namespace Declarations back to ToC

default namespace
https://w3id.org/MON/affordance.owl#
action-owl
https://w3id.org/MON/action.owl#
dc
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
dul
http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/ont/dul/
dul-owl
http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/ont/dul/DUL.owl#
j.0
http://www.ontologydesignpatterns.org/schemas/cpannotationschema.owl#
mon
https://w3id.org/MON/
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
src
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/luigi-asprino/MON/main/src/
xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#

This HTML document was obtained by processing the OWL ontology source code through LODE, Live OWL Documentation Environment, developed by Silvio Peroni .